Process of making the questionnaire


  • The people we considered to interview about the 911 emergency  system are Caller, Dispatcher and First responder.
  • Also, the Age,Gender, and education level are important because the caller might describe their emergency type and current  location differently.
  • We have to know if  people have disability, if yes, what type of disability they have. Like speaking issue, walking problem, etc.
  • Language problem is the most important issue we had to consider about because United States is a big immigrant country. Many people live in here and most of them came from other country. If they are calling 9-1-1 and also they don’t understand English at all. What other language they can speak. Does anyone from their house can understand and speak English?
  • We might ask people who have called 9-1-1 about their experient, type of emergency they have?(like medical, police or fire issue)
  • Also consider about the time to call 911, like if they call 911 during the daytime that can get the responder faster? If they call it at the midnight , can you reach out to the Dispatcher for help or it take so long to reach?
  • The Place they report the emergency
  • The phone they use to call (like landline or Mobile )
  • neighborhood
  • Any difficulty you have when you try to reach out the  911 emergency system for help? ( Dispathcer can understand your descipiction of the emergency? Do they take so long to arrive to your emergency location? Ects)
  • Any recommendations the current 9-1-1 system can be improved?




  • Educational level or any certification to be as dispatcher. How long does they need to update your certification?
  • How long do they work as that position
  • What is your job about?
  • How you handle people who calling 911 emergency don’t speak English
  • Percentage of non emergency call
  • How to deal with non emergency call
  • Problem or difficult  of current 911 system
  • Recommendation to improve the current emergency system


First responder


  • In terms of the level of the emergency, how the first responder respond to it?
  • Technical problems and difficulties when handling the emergency
  • The time it takes to get to the scene
  • How do the first responder interact with each other
  • Feedback about the current system
  • How do the dispatcher get into the third party for translation?
  • Neighborhood
  • Accuracy of determine the location

User Interface Wireframe

User screen:

At the center,there is the map which can identifies your current emergency location. At the bottom, there are the three shortcut buttons to contact police, call 911 and EMS. If the users are  having the health issue and requesting for the emergency, they can just click the EMS button and  it brings them to the EMS dispatcher. Or when they are facing the problem that need the help from the police, they can click on the police button. If they don’t know which department they need to reach for help, then press call  911 button ,it will bring you the dispatcher and he/she will ask question about your emergency in order to determine what kind of the first responder to dispatch.

On the top right corner of the screen there is a  flag logo which includes the language function that the user can choose  their preferred language.

On the top  left corner of the screen we have the menu function which contains sign/login, setting and feedback buttons.


Once you click on the call 911 button, it will bring you the contacting 911 page. You can either select video, voice or text function to communicate with the dispatcher.
The voice function is just like the regular calling, if you don’t like to use the voice function,then you change to the video or text function.

The video function is good for people who have the emergency , the dispatcher is able to see your current situation and informs you what the next step to do or how to manipulate the scene until the first responder arrive.


The user are allowed to switch the communication’s way to texting. It is beneficial for the case of people have a the emergency and they can’t talk. So, the user can text their problem to the dispatcher. Moreover, the user is able use the camera to capture the picture of the emergency’s status and report them as the evidence. Furthermore, if the user are accidently call the 911, there is the end call that they can cancel that call.



When the users click  the “login” button on menu function, it bring them to  the login page



For first step, you need to enter your email and the password.

you need to enter your email and password, the next page of sign up, you need to enter your first and last name, your current living address.



















Also, additional information page, it will ask if the user are disabled or not, if yes, explain what kind of the disability.  Moreover, it will ask your health condition and your allergies status. that ‘s all for user to sign up the account. Once the user sign up the account and when they are calling the 911, the dispatcher will able to see their name and all condition they filled out.


False Alarm Calls

In 2001, police officers were sent to the 5756 alarm calls, less 1% activity is about criminal activity.

In 2002, police officers were sent to the 5688 alarm calls, also less 1% is about criminal activity.

The false alarm call brings a terrible impact to the 911 system; it makes the 911 and business call slow down.


The government attempts to do some following steps when people use the calls an alarm:

  • Verified responds
  • Fine driven responds
  • Cost recovery
  • Two-call verification

Also, the government tries to take actions to reduce the false alarm calls.

There is a fine if people execute a false alarm call. There is no fine for the first call, second call will be charged with $50, the third one is $100, four one is $150, five one is $200, and $250 for six one or above.





Crime and Free Wifi Services in NYC Subway Stations

Nowadays, the transportation system in NYC had improved a lot and started to have free wi-fi linked to the stations. We can consider the improvements to reduce risks happening in NYC subway. Especially when there was not many police officers on rush hours, the chance of criminal activity occur easily.

  1. Crime
  • The stations had most crime are Times Square, 125st, and 14st Union Square
  • The station had least crime are Aqueduct Racetrack, 77st and Hunter Point Ave
  • Of the crime activities, there were 70% physical force and 12.5% using knives. Moreover, 5.5% involved using a gun.

Nearly 40% of crimes occurred in midday hours 11am-5pm.


2. Free-WIfi

  • A BAI Communications company provides advanced cellular, Wi-Fi and for NYC wifi.
  • 278 underground stations has free-wifi mostly on Manhattan Areas
  • Services link to AT&T,T-MOBILE, and VERIZON. (nyc subway crime)   NYC Free-Wifi

Writing Abstracts For Research Project

What is an abstract?

An abstract is self-contained summary of a project that is discipline-specific, audience-specific, and includes searchable keywords.

Information included in an abstract?

  1. motivation/significance
  2. problem/purpose
  3. methodology
  4. conclusion
  5. implication

Tips for writing abstracts

  • determine your primary audience
  • establish the importance of your project
  • be clear and concise, and use language suitable to your audience
  • discuss your abstract with your faculty mentor



Highway Emergency Assistance Cell Numbers

511 —”America’s Traveler Information Telephone Number”, providing current road conditions and construction datas.

About half the states currently have working 511 systems statewide or in some cities/areas. Almost all states have received funding to set up 511 systems.

Some states have special numbers (starts with 77) for calling the police or (start with 47) for highway patrol.

Alabama:  Cellphone-only: *HP (star 47)

Alaska:  911

Arizona:  911

Arkansas:  911 or Cellphone-only: *55 (star 55)

California:  911

Colorado:  911 or Cellphone-only: *CSP (star 277) or *DUI (star 384) —to report DUIs

Connecticut:  911 or (800-443-6817)

Delaware:  911

Florida:  911 or 800-459-6861 or Cellphone-only: *FHP (star 347)

Georgia:  911 or Cellphone-only: *GSP (star 477)

Hawaii:  911

Idaho:  911 or 800-233-1212 or Cellphone-only: *ISP (star 477)

Illinois:  911 or Cellphone-only: *999 (star 999)

Indiana:  911

Iowa:  911 or 800-555-HELP (800-555-4357)
Kansas:  911 (Statewide) or Cellphone-only: *HP (star 47 for Salina, KS;
*KTA (*482) —Kansas Turnpike and for Wichita, KS

Kentucky:  911 or 800-222-5555

Louisiana:  911 or Cellphone-only: *LHP (star 547);
Lake Ponchartrain Causeway: *27 (star 27 —cellphone-only) or 504-893-6250

Maine:  911 or Cellphone-only: *SP (star 77)

Maryland:  911 or Cellphone-only: #SP (pound 77)

Massachusetts:  Cellphones: *MSP (star 677) – in the 413 areacode; *SP (star 77) —outside the 413 areacode

Michigan:  911

Minnesota:  911

Mississippi:  Cellphone only: *HP (star 47)

Missouri:  Cellphone-only: *55 (star 55) or 800-525-5555

Montana:  911 (emergency only) or 800-525-5555 (non-emergency)

Nebraska:  911 or 800-525-5555 or Cellphone-only:*55 (star 55)

Nevada:  911 or Cellphone-only:*NHP (star 647)

New Hampshire:  911 or 800-622-2394 or Cellphone-only: *SP (star 77)

New Jersey:  911 or Cellphone-only: #77 (pound 77 —to report aggressive driving)

New Mexico:  911 or 505-827-9301

New York:  911

North Carolina:  Cellphone only: *HP (star 47) or 800-662-7956

North Dakota:  911

Ohio:  911 or 800-525-5555 (OHP) or 800-877-7PATROL (Ohio only, to report non-emergency safety concerns) or 800-GRAB-DUI (to report erratic driving)

Oklahoma:  Cellphone-only *55 (star 55)

Oregon:  911

Pennsylvania:  911 or Cellphone-only: *11 (star 11) —on turnpikes

Rhode Island:  911 or 401-444-1069

South Carolina:  Cellphone only: *HP (star 47)

South Dakota:  911

Tennessee:  Cellphone-only: *THP (star 847) or 615-741-2060

Texas:  911 or 800-525-5555 or Cellphone-only: *DPS (star 377)

Utah:  911 or Cellphone-only: *11 (star 11)

Vermont:  911 or DWI Hotline: 800-GETADWI and *DWI (star 394 —cellphone-only)

Virginia:  911 or Cellphone-only: #SP (pound 77)

U.S. Virgin Islands:  911

Washington:  911

West Virginia:  Cellphone-only: *SP (star 77)

Wisconsin:  911

Wyoming:  Cellphone only: #HELP (pound 4357) or 800-442-9090

When in doubt:

0 (zero) —Operator assistance
411 —local directory assistance
(area code) + 555-1212 —non-local directory assistance


History Of 911 System

  • In 1960, United States did not have the 911 system
  • Los Angeles had 50 different police departments and just as many phone numbers.
  • There was lack efficiency of calling for aids, you need to know the phone number from different departments in  
  • National Fire Chief’s Association suggested a national emergency phone number to the system in 1957 and the President Lyndon B. Johnson started to take action for the improvement 10 years later.
  • In 1967, the Federal Communications Commission worked with the AT&T Company, so they came up with a convenient number (911) as a universal number for emergency.
  • According to the statistics of emergency showing approximately 26% that citizens were able to contact the local emergency services. In 1989, the number had risen up to 50 %. Moreover, the number of U.S citizens approach to 99% that they can access their local emergency services by calling 911.
  • The idea of 911 being created was originally came from British in 1937.
  • On February 16, 1968, Senator Rankin Fite completed the first 9-1-1 call made in the United States in Haleyville, Alabama. The serving telephone company was then Alabama Telephone Company. This Haleyville 9-1-1 system is still in operation today.