False Alarm Calls

In 2001, police officers were sent to the 5756 alarm calls, less 1% activity is about criminal activity.

In 2002, police officers were sent to the 5688 alarm calls, also less 1% is about criminal activity.

The false alarm call brings a terrible impact to the 911 system; it makes the 911 and business call slow down.


The government attempts to do some following steps when people use the calls an alarm:

  • Verified responds
  • Fine driven responds
  • Cost recovery
  • Two-call verification

Also, the government tries to take actions to reduce the false alarm calls.

There is a fine if people execute a false alarm call. There is no fine for the first call, second call will be charged with $50, the third one is $100, four one is $150, five one is $200, and $250 for six one or above.




resources: http://www.popcenter.org/problems/false_alarms/

Crime and Free Wifi Services in NYC Subway Stations

Nowadays, the transportation system in NYC had improved a lot and started to have free wi-fi linked to the stations. We can consider the improvements to reduce risks happening in NYC subway. Especially when there was not many police officers on rush hours, the chance of criminal activity occur easily.

  1. Crime
  • The stations had most crime are Times Square, 125st, and 14st Union Square
  • The station had least crime are Aqueduct Racetrack, 77st and Hunter Point Ave
  • Of the crime activities, there were 70% physical force and 12.5% using knives. Moreover, 5.5% involved using a gun.

Nearly 40% of crimes occurred in midday hours 11am-5pm.


2. Free-WIfi

  • A BAI Communications company provides advanced cellular, Wi-Fi and for NYC wifi.
  • 278 underground stations has free-wifi mostly on Manhattan Areas
  • Services link to AT&T,T-MOBILE, and VERIZON.

http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/nyc-crime/daily-news-analysis-reveals-crime-rankings-city-subway-system-article-1.1836918 (nyc subway crime)

http://transitwireless.com/   NYC Free-Wifi

Auto Dialer Security System

The purpose of the security system is to protect the environment from thieves and intruders.

  1. Auto Dial Security Alarm is one of the most important device for the owner
  • It has of motion sensor which detects the motion of a person in certain area being mounted( usually motion sensor mounts on doors and windows)
  • Once the sensor identifies the intruder(s), then the alarm will sound and even so it can automatically call up to 5 different preset numbers you have been selected
  • The sound will also let your neighbors know that there is something going on in the household
  • Furthermore, it provides the fast contact to the 911 emergency services once you receive the call from this alarm when there is no neighbors in your areas
  • It requires to install a battery connects to the AC adaptor and telephone line





Highway Emergency Assistance Cell Numbers

511 —”America’s Traveler Information Telephone Number”, providing current road conditions and construction datas.

About half the states currently have working 511 systems statewide or in some cities/areas. Almost all states have received funding to set up 511 systems.

Some states have special numbers (starts with 77) for calling the police or (start with 47) for highway patrol.

Alabama:  Cellphone-only: *HP (star 47)

Alaska:  911

Arizona:  911

Arkansas:  911 or Cellphone-only: *55 (star 55)

California:  911

Colorado:  911 or Cellphone-only: *CSP (star 277) or *DUI (star 384) —to report DUIs

Connecticut:  911 or (800-443-6817)

Delaware:  911

Florida:  911 or 800-459-6861 or Cellphone-only: *FHP (star 347)

Georgia:  911 or Cellphone-only: *GSP (star 477)

Hawaii:  911

Idaho:  911 or 800-233-1212 or Cellphone-only: *ISP (star 477)

Illinois:  911 or Cellphone-only: *999 (star 999)

Indiana:  911

Iowa:  911 or 800-555-HELP (800-555-4357)
Kansas:  911 (Statewide) or Cellphone-only: *HP (star 47 for Salina, KS;
*KTA (*482) —Kansas Turnpike and for Wichita, KS

Kentucky:  911 or 800-222-5555

Louisiana:  911 or Cellphone-only: *LHP (star 547);
Lake Ponchartrain Causeway: *27 (star 27 —cellphone-only) or 504-893-6250

Maine:  911 or Cellphone-only: *SP (star 77)

Maryland:  911 or Cellphone-only: #SP (pound 77)

Massachusetts:  Cellphones: *MSP (star 677) – in the 413 areacode; *SP (star 77) —outside the 413 areacode

Michigan:  911

Minnesota:  911

Mississippi:  Cellphone only: *HP (star 47)

Missouri:  Cellphone-only: *55 (star 55) or 800-525-5555

Montana:  911 (emergency only) or 800-525-5555 (non-emergency)

Nebraska:  911 or 800-525-5555 or Cellphone-only:*55 (star 55)

Nevada:  911 or Cellphone-only:*NHP (star 647)

New Hampshire:  911 or 800-622-2394 or Cellphone-only: *SP (star 77)

New Jersey:  911 or Cellphone-only: #77 (pound 77 —to report aggressive driving)

New Mexico:  911 or 505-827-9301

New York:  911

North Carolina:  Cellphone only: *HP (star 47) or 800-662-7956

North Dakota:  911

Ohio:  911 or 800-525-5555 (OHP) or 800-877-7PATROL (Ohio only, to report non-emergency safety concerns) or 800-GRAB-DUI (to report erratic driving)

Oklahoma:  Cellphone-only *55 (star 55)

Oregon:  911

Pennsylvania:  911 or Cellphone-only: *11 (star 11) —on turnpikes

Rhode Island:  911 or 401-444-1069

South Carolina:  Cellphone only: *HP (star 47)

South Dakota:  911

Tennessee:  Cellphone-only: *THP (star 847) or 615-741-2060

Texas:  911 or 800-525-5555 or Cellphone-only: *DPS (star 377)

Utah:  911 or Cellphone-only: *11 (star 11)

Vermont:  911 or DWI Hotline: 800-GETADWI and *DWI (star 394 —cellphone-only)

Virginia:  911 or Cellphone-only: #SP (pound 77)

U.S. Virgin Islands:  911

Washington:  911

West Virginia:  Cellphone-only: *SP (star 77)

Wisconsin:  911

Wyoming:  Cellphone only: #HELP (pound 4357) or 800-442-9090

When in doubt:

0 (zero) —Operator assistance
411 —local directory assistance
(area code) + 555-1212 —non-local directory assistance



Disasters in U.S

U.S Disasters

  1. Hurricane Sandy
  • It was hit in the areas of New York, New Jersey and Connecticut on October 29, 2012.
  • Heavy rain and storm caused 8.5 million people in the cold and dark without electricity
  • In the first 10 days, the emergency provided supplies to take care more than 70,000 survivors
  • The government given $6.5 million funding for survivors for the health care and critical care services.
  1. Hurricane Katrina
  • it was happened in the New Orleans and Gulf Coast
  • it also causes 1 million people to become homeless
  • During that month, the government provide 4 million funding to survives for the health care and supply
  • Moreover, they also given 24 million dollars in medical aid for the future 7 years.
  1. Joplin Tornado
  • It was the 7th deadliest tornado around the world happening in the Missoouri city of Joplin in May 22,2011.
  • More than 1,000 people got injured and it destroyed 75,000 residents and 9,200 people got displaced
  • By using the technology can reduce the risk of the incoming disasters

The Federal Emergency Management Agency gave $20 million for this tragically event in aid

4.911 attack in NYC

  • Islamic Terrorist attack in the United States in September 11, 2001 caused 3,000 people to death(including the first responders)
  • Two of the planes were hit on the twin towers in NYC. Additionally ,the other two hit both areas in Pentagon near Washington D.C and also the field in Pennsylvania
  • There were some of the Terrorists members hidden in United States who trained for the flight lessons and got ready for this combat

Tornado mostly happen in central and south United States. When the season is close to summer. The Tornado often occurs at that time .

1 2


http://www.americares.org/en/what-we-do/emergency-programs/united-states-disasters/   (U.S disasters)

http://www.cnn.com/2016/05/22/us/joplin-tornado-anniversary/index.html   (joplin tornado)

http://www.ustornadoes.com/2016/04/06/annual-and-monthly-tornado-averages-across-the-united-states/    (tornado)

http://www.history.com/topics/9-11-attacks       (911 attack)

9-1-1 System Processes


  • 9-1-1 is mostly called from a wireless device. The Nine Eleven National Association (N.E.N.A) shows that “An estimated 240 million calls are made to 9-1-1 in the U.S. each year. In many areas, 70% or more are from wireless devices.”

There are different process for 9-1-1 calls:

Basic 9-1-1:

  • Basic 9-1-1 means that when the three-digit number is dialed, a call taker/dispatcher in the local public safety answering point (PSAP), or 9-1-1 call center, answers the call.The emergency and its location are communicated by voice (or TTY) between the caller and the call taker.

    Enhanced 9-1-1:

    In areas serviced by enhanced 9-1-1, the call is selectively routed to the proper PSAP for the caller’s location, and the PSAP has equipment and database information that display the caller’s phone number and address to the call taker. 93% of counties with 9-1-1 coverage have enhanced 9-1-1 for callers. The term “enhanced 9-1-1” is not synonymous with wireless 9-1-1.

    Wireless Phase I:

    When Phase I has been implemented, the call taker automatically receives the wireless phone number.This is important in the event the wireless phone call is dropped, and may allow PSAP employees to work with the wireless company to identify the wireless subscriber.Phase I also delivers the location of the cell tower handling the call. The call is routed to a PSAP based on cell site/sector information.

    Wireless Phase II:

    While this is the ideal of that phase of 9-1-1 according to the USA today operators give as a testimony that “There are times when it doesn’t come up at all. Every day we receive calls where we get a tower address and that’s it.”

  • Phase II allows call takers to receive both the caller’s wireless phone number and their location information.The call is routed to a PSAP either based on cell site/sector information or on caller location information.

    9-1-1 Calls through VoIP:

    Business and residential use of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telecommunications services is growing at a rapid pace.Methods to bring 9-1-1 calls into E9-1-1 systems have recently become available, and NENA is leading work to develop full E9-1-1 capability for VoIP-based services.

    Next Generation Trends:

    Estimates are that nearly 29.7% of all U.S. households currently rely on wireless as their primary service as of June 2011 (having given up wireline service or chosen not to use it). (CTIA – Wireless Quick Facts – Dec 2011)

Technology behind the current 911 system.

Source: http://www.greatcall.com/greatcall/lp/technology-behind-911-calls-infographic.htm
Source: http://www.greatcall.com/greatcall/lp/technology-behind-911-calls-infographic.htm

Source: https://www.nena.org/?page=911Cellphones

History Of 911 System

  • In 1960, United States did not have the 911 system
  • Los Angeles had 50 different police departments and just as many phone numbers.
  • There was lack efficiency of calling for aids, you need to know the phone number from different departments in  
  • National Fire Chief’s Association suggested a national emergency phone number to the system in 1957 and the President Lyndon B. Johnson started to take action for the improvement 10 years later.
  • In 1967, the Federal Communications Commission worked with the AT&T Company, so they came up with a convenient number (911) as a universal number for emergency.
  • According to the statistics of emergency showing approximately 26% that citizens were able to contact the local emergency services. In 1989, the number had risen up to 50 %. Moreover, the number of U.S citizens approach to 99% that they can access their local emergency services by calling 911.
  • The idea of 911 being created was originally came from British in 1937.
  • On February 16, 1968, Senator Rankin Fite completed the first 9-1-1 call made in the United States in Haleyville, Alabama. The serving telephone company was then Alabama Telephone Company. This Haleyville 9-1-1 system is still in operation today.