Disasters in U.S

U.S Disasters

  1. Hurricane Sandy
  • It was hit in the areas of New York, New Jersey and Connecticut on October 29, 2012.
  • Heavy rain and storm caused 8.5 million people in the cold and dark without electricity
  • In the first 10 days, the emergency provided supplies to take care more than 70,000 survivors
  • The government given $6.5 million funding for survivors for the health care and critical care services.
  1. Hurricane Katrina
  • it was happened in the New Orleans and Gulf Coast
  • it also causes 1 million people to become homeless
  • During that month, the government provide 4 million funding to survives for the health care and supply
  • Moreover, they also given 24 million dollars in medical aid for the future 7 years.
  1. Joplin Tornado
  • It was the 7th deadliest tornado around the world happening in the Missoouri city of Joplin in May 22,2011.
  • More than 1,000 people got injured and it destroyed 75,000 residents and 9,200 people got displaced
  • By using the technology can reduce the risk of the incoming disasters

The Federal Emergency Management Agency gave $20 million for this tragically event in aid

4.911 attack in NYC

  • Islamic Terrorist attack in the United States in September 11, 2001 caused 3,000 people to death(including the first responders)
  • Two of the planes were hit on the twin towers in NYC. Additionally ,the other two hit both areas in Pentagon near Washington D.C and also the field in Pennsylvania
  • There were some of the Terrorists members hidden in United States who trained for the flight lessons and got ready for this combat

Tornado mostly happen in central and south United States. When the season is close to summer. The Tornado often occurs at that time .

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http://www.americares.org/en/what-we-do/emergency-programs/united-states-disasters/   (U.S disasters)

http://www.cnn.com/2016/05/22/us/joplin-tornado-anniversary/index.html   (joplin tornado)

http://www.ustornadoes.com/2016/04/06/annual-and-monthly-tornado-averages-across-the-united-states/    (tornado)

http://www.history.com/topics/9-11-attacks       (911 attack)

9-1-1 System Processes


  • 9-1-1 is mostly called from a wireless device. The Nine Eleven National Association (N.E.N.A) shows that “An estimated 240 million calls are made to 9-1-1 in the U.S. each year. In many areas, 70% or more are from wireless devices.”

There are different process for 9-1-1 calls:

Basic 9-1-1:

  • Basic 9-1-1 means that when the three-digit number is dialed, a call taker/dispatcher in the local public safety answering point (PSAP), or 9-1-1 call center, answers the call.The emergency and its location are communicated by voice (or TTY) between the caller and the call taker.

    Enhanced 9-1-1:

    In areas serviced by enhanced 9-1-1, the call is selectively routed to the proper PSAP for the caller’s location, and the PSAP has equipment and database information that display the caller’s phone number and address to the call taker. 93% of counties with 9-1-1 coverage have enhanced 9-1-1 for callers. The term “enhanced 9-1-1” is not synonymous with wireless 9-1-1.

    Wireless Phase I:

    When Phase I has been implemented, the call taker automatically receives the wireless phone number.This is important in the event the wireless phone call is dropped, and may allow PSAP employees to work with the wireless company to identify the wireless subscriber.Phase I also delivers the location of the cell tower handling the call. The call is routed to a PSAP based on cell site/sector information.

    Wireless Phase II:

    While this is the ideal of that phase of 9-1-1 according to the USA today operators give as a testimony that “There are times when it doesn’t come up at all. Every day we receive calls where we get a tower address and that’s it.”

  • Phase II allows call takers to receive both the caller’s wireless phone number and their location information.The call is routed to a PSAP either based on cell site/sector information or on caller location information.

    9-1-1 Calls through VoIP:

    Business and residential use of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telecommunications services is growing at a rapid pace.Methods to bring 9-1-1 calls into E9-1-1 systems have recently become available, and NENA is leading work to develop full E9-1-1 capability for VoIP-based services.

    Next Generation Trends:

    Estimates are that nearly 29.7% of all U.S. households currently rely on wireless as their primary service as of June 2011 (having given up wireline service or chosen not to use it). (CTIA – Wireless Quick Facts – Dec 2011)

Technology behind the current 911 system.

Source: http://www.greatcall.com/greatcall/lp/technology-behind-911-calls-infographic.htm
Source: http://www.greatcall.com/greatcall/lp/technology-behind-911-calls-infographic.htm

Source: https://www.nena.org/?page=911Cellphones

History Of 911 System

  • In 1960, United States did not have the 911 system
  • Los Angeles had 50 different police departments and just as many phone numbers.
  • There was lack efficiency of calling for aids, you need to know the phone number from different departments in  
  • National Fire Chief’s Association suggested a national emergency phone number to the system in 1957 and the President Lyndon B. Johnson started to take action for the improvement 10 years later.
  • In 1967, the Federal Communications Commission worked with the AT&T Company, so they came up with a convenient number (911) as a universal number for emergency.
  • According to the statistics of emergency showing approximately 26% that citizens were able to contact the local emergency services. In 1989, the number had risen up to 50 %. Moreover, the number of U.S citizens approach to 99% that they can access their local emergency services by calling 911.
  • The idea of 911 being created was originally came from British in 1937.
  • On February 16, 1968, Senator Rankin Fite completed the first 9-1-1 call made in the United States in Haleyville, Alabama. The serving telephone company was then Alabama Telephone Company. This Haleyville 9-1-1 system is still in operation today.




Rapid SOS


  • The app contains all the services include Fire, Police, Medical and also car crash in need.
  • With a single click, app can define a person’s location by calling (Even there is no mobile signal on the phone).
  • It can reach out to family members easily.
  • Free subscription for a year
  • Operating systems:IOS,Android
  • 90 days free with Family Yearly Plan $49.99/year
    30 days free with Family Monthly Plan $4.99/month
    For Personal Use:
    90 days free with Individual Yearly Plan $29.99/year
    30 days free with Individual Monthly Plan $2.99/month
  • Problem of rapid SOS is that one press button will reach to the emergency line, however, what if it is pressing the button by mistake?Developers in Boston have worked with global emergency response teams to create its One-Touch-911 app (pictured). Users can call the police, fire service, report a car crash or seek medical help at the press of a single button - and it works even if the user doesn't have signal